Our AMA believes that the use of financial incentives in the management of medical care should be guided by the following principles:
(1) Patient advocacy is a fundamental element of the physician-patient relationship that should not be altered by the health care system or setting in which physicians practice, or the methods by which they are compensated.
(2) Physicians should have the right to enter into whatever contractual arrangements with health care systems, plans, groups or hospital departments they deem desirable and necessary, but they should be aware of the potential for some types of systems, plans, group and hospital departments to create conflicts of interest, due to the use of financial incentives in the management of medical care.
(3) Financial incentives should enhance the provision of high quality, cost-effective medical care.
(4) Financial incentives should not result in the withholding of appropriate medical services or in the denial of patient access to such services.
(5) Any financial incentives that may induce a limitation of the medical services offered to patients, as well as treatment or referral options, should be fully disclosed by health plans to enrollees and prospective enrollees, and by health care groups, systems or closed hospital departments to patients and prospective patients.
(6) Physicians should disclose any financial incentives that may induce a limitation of the diagnostic and therapeutic alternatives that are offered to patients, or restrict treatment or referral options. Physicians may satisfy their disclosure obligations by assuring that the health plans with which they contract provide such disclosure to enrollees and prospective enrollees. Physicians may also satisfy their disclosure obligations by assuring that the health care group, system or hospital department with which they are affiliated provide such disclosure to patients seeking treatment.
(7) Financial incentives should not be based on the performance of physicians over short periods of time, nor should they be linked with individual treatment decisions over periods of time insufficient to identify patterns of care.
(8) Financial incentives generally should be based on the performance of groups of physicians rather than individual physicians. However, within a physician group, individual physician financial incentives may be related to quality of care, productivity, utilization of services, and overall performance of the physician group.
(9) The appropriateness and structure of a specific financial incentive should take into account a variety of factors such as the use and level of “stop-loss” insurance, and the adequacy of the base payments (not at-risk payments) to physicians and physician groups. The purpose of assessing the appropriateness of financial incentives is to avoid placing a physician or physician group at excessive risk which may induce the rationing of care.
(10) Physicians should consult with legal counsel prior to agreeing to any health plan contract or agreeing to join a group, delivery system or hospital department that uses financial incentives in a manner that could inappropriately influence their clinical judgment.
(11) Physicians agreeing to health plan contracts that contain financial incentives should seek the inclusion of provisions allowing for an independent annual audit to assure that the distribution of incentive payments is in keeping with the terms of the contract.
(12) Physicians should consider obtaining their own accountants when financial incentives are included in health plan contracts, to assure proper auditing and distribution of incentive payments.
(13) Physicians, other health care professionals, third party payers and health care delivery settings through their payment policies, should continue to encourage use of the most cost-effective care setting in which medical services can be provided safely with no detriment to quality.
CMS Rep. 3, I-96 Reaffirmed by CMS Rep. 15, A-98 Reaffirmation A-99 Reaffirmed: CMS Rep. 12, I-99 Reaffirmation A-00 Reaffirmation A-01 Reaffirmed in lieu of Res. 901, I-05 Modified: BOT Rep. 38, A-06 Reaffirmed: CMS Rep. 01, A-16, Reaffirmed: CMS Rep. 11, A-19